NEWS NOTES ON SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES  Floods and Droughts  “In this study, we compile and analyze 136,920 records of flood ...

NEWS NOTES ON SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES  Floods and Droughts  “In this study, we compile and analyze 136,920 records of flood and 50,967 records of drought from a survey-based database to investigate recent changes in annual occurrence and economical cost in the United States. Results show that an average of 6520 floods has occurred per year during 1996–2016, with annual mean economic losses up to 3986 million US dollars, while 2427 drought events/year are recorded causing an average loss of 1684 million US dollars per year.   Importantly, we found there is no evident changing tendency in annual economic damages of floods and droughts, despite an upward trend in their annual occurrences. This could be partly explained by changes in regional vulnerabilities, as indirectly reflected by the ratio of damaging events to total number of events experienced and the average damage per event. Spatially, vulnerability to droughts has decreased in most of the country, while increased vulnerability to floods is observed in a number of states.   Despite limitations from the records and incomplete characterization of vulnerability, this study has great implications for targeted mitigation and adaptation, through identifying the regions that are most vulnerable to floods and droughts respectively and highlighting the contrasting patterns in regional vulnerability to floods and droughts.”  See https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7cdf/ab3a4ea1787b82b74d3c968fef4ee5488bd7.pdf?_ga=2.105983489.320776323.1570919112-733556333.1570919112  For more information.    USGS has also carried out studies on floods and droughts:  “The USGS collects flood data and conducts targeted flood science to help Federal, State, and local agencies, decision makers, and the public before, during, and after a flood. Our efforts provide situational awareness, drive predictive models, inform infrastructure design and operation, undergird floodplain mapping, assist flood constituent/load quantification, and facilitate flood impact assessments.”  https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/water-resources/science/usgs-flood-information?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects  “The USGS offers multiple products that allow our stakeholders and the public to be notified of high-flow conditions and USGS flood response activities:WaterWatch: Access current flood and high-flow conditions (image below), along with other streamflow informationRegional and Local Flood Alerts: View current and historical alerts of flooding and response activities; subscribe to RSS feedsWaterAlert: The WaterAlert service sends e-mail or text (SMS) messages to you when certain parameters (including streamflow and gage height/stage) exceed user-definable thresholds, as measured by a USGS real-time data-collection station. Use the WaterAlert map to create your custom notifications.WaterNow: When you email or text the WaterNow service with USGS gage or site number, WaterNow will reply with the most recent observation.”In addition, drought information from the USGS is available. “Drought poses a serious threat to the resilience of human communities and ecosystems in the United States. Over the past several years, many regions have experienced extreme drought conditions, fueled by prolonged periods of reduced precipitation and exceptionally warm temperatures. Extreme drought has far-reaching impacts on water supplies, ecosystems, agricultural production, critical infrastructure, energy costs, human health, and local economies. As global temperatures continue to increase, the frequency, severity, extent, and duration of droughts are expected to increase across North America, affecting both humans and natural ecosystems.” “The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long, proven history of delivering science and tools to help decision-makers manage and mitigate effects of drought. That said, there is substantial capacity for improved integration and coordination in the ways that the USGS provides drought science. A USGS Drought Team was formed in August 2016 to work across USGS Mission Areas to identify current USGS drought-related research and core capabilities. This information has been used to initiate the development of an integrated science effort that will bring the full USGS capacity to bear on this national crisis.”More information about this program can be found here:https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1430/cir1430.pdf